Some Notes:

The English language has no gender-neutral pronouns. So when the words man, he, him, etc are used, they mean "Generic human being" unless the context specifically says otherwise. Only women get words devoted just to them.

Thou, Thee, and Thine are singular pronouns. You and Your are plural in the 16th Century English the King James Bible was translated into. This actually makes the message clearer than our habit of using "you" as both a singular and a plural.

In many scriptures I have changed the King James (English) spelling to American spelling (labour=labor, for example. I understand those in England still spell it with a u). Also, in some scriptures I have changed the "-eth" to a simple "s." Spelling standards weren't set in English until the mid 1800's, well after the translating of the KJV. So I see no problem with making these simple changes that don't affect the meaning of the scripture but make it easier for our modern mouths and ears to deal with.

Exodus 22a- Of Theft

1 If a man steals an ox, or a sheep, whether he kills it or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for an ox,
and four sheep for a sheep.

Ephesians 4:28 Let the thief no longer steal, but instead, let him work at honest work with his own hands, so that he has something to share with anyone in need.

Romans 13:9 For the commandments, “You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and any other commandment, are summed up in this word: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.”

1 Corinthians 6:9-11 Or don't you know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived! Neither the sexually immoral, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor men who practice homosexuality, nor thieves, nor the greedy, nor drunkards, nor abusers, nor con-men will inherit the kingdom of God. And some of you were these things. But you were washed, you were purified, you were put right with God by the power of our Boss, Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.

Deuteronomy 5:19 Neither shalt thou steal.

Proverbs 20:17 Bread gained by deceit is sweet to a man, but afterward his mouth will be full of gravel.

Proverbs 6:30-31 People do not despise a thief if he steals to because he is starving, but if he is caught, he will pay seven times what he stole. He will give all the goods of his house.

A thief was punished by paying back to the victim more than he took.

The government received none of the money/property. They weren’t the ones wronged. It all went to the victims.

Exodus 22:2 If a thief be found breaking in, and be hit so that he die, there shall no blood be shed for him.

It is perfectly OK to shoot someone breaking into your house. It is assumed that if they are breaking in while you are home they have the intent to do you harm. According to God's law, you wouldn’t be punished for killing them.

We have a basic, fundamental right to protect our property. If we didn’t, we wouldn’t have the right to property ownership.

3 If the sun is up when he is caught and killed, though, there shall be blood shed for him, because he should make full restitution. If he doesn't own anything, then he shall be sold for his theft.

However, in broad daylight, you call the police and capture the intruder. Then he has to repay anything taken and if he can’t, he becomes a slave until he does. The victim is immediately repaid for his loss.

4 If the things he stole are found on him, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep, he shall restore double.

In verse 1, the animal was killed or sold. Here, the animal is still alive and in the thief's possession, so the thief gives it back plus another animal. If he doesn't have an animal he must become a slave until he earns one.

7 If a man shall gives to his neighbor money or things to store for him, and it is stolen out of the neighbor's house, if the thief is found, let him pay double.

Leviticus 6:1-7 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,

2 "If a soul sins, and commits a trespass against the Lord, and lie to his neighbor in that which was given him to store, or in fellowship, or in something taken away by violence, or has deceived his neighbor,

3 Or has found that which was lost, and lies about it, and swears falsely, (he is sinning),

4 Then it shall be, because he has sinned, and is guilty, that he shall repay that which he took violently away, or the thing which he has deceitfully gotten, or that which was given to him to keep, or the lost thing which he found,

5 Or all that about which he has lied, he shall even restore it in the principal, and shall add the fifth part more to it, and give it to whoever was wronged in the day of his sin offering.

6 And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the Lord, a ram without flaw out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a sin offering, to the priest:

7 And the priest shall make an atonement for him before the Lord: and it shall be forgiven him for any thing of all that he has done in sinning.

The thief pays more for his crime than he stole, plus he has to ask for God's forgiveness.

Exodus 22:8 If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges, to see whether he has put his stolen his neighbor's goods.

An investigation is made to see if the owner of the house is guilty of stealing the property or if it was just bad luck.

10 If a man give his neighbor a donkey, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to keep, and it die, or is hurt, or runs away, and no one sees it, 

11 Then shall he swear to the I AM and the owner that he has not stolen his neighbor’s goods. And the owner of it shall accept his promise. He doesn't have to pay it back.

It was an accident. Just one of those things.

12 And if it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it.

It would be assumed theft occurred due to the neighbor not being diligent enough to protect the animal.

13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him bring it for witness, and he shall not make good that which was torn.

Obviously, if you only have bits and shreds left, some predator killed it. No fault of the humans.

14 And if a man borrow anything from his neighbor, and it is hurt, or die, while the owner of it isn't with it, he shall surely pay for it. 

If you harm someone’s property while borrowing it, you pay for it. If you borrow your neighbor's lawn mower to mow your lawn and it breaks while you are using it, you pay to repair it.

15 But if the owner of it is with it, the borrower shall not pay for it. It was hired and is paid for by the rental fee.

If you hire someone to mow you lawn and his mower breaks down, however, that’s the owner of the mowers problem, not the one doing the hiring.