Some Notes:

The English language has no gender-neutral pronouns. So when the words man, he, him, etc are used, they mean "Generic human being" unless the context specifically says otherwise. Only women get words devoted just to them.

Thou, Thee, and Thine are singular pronouns. You and Your are plural in the 16th Century English the King James Bible was translated into. This actually makes the message clearer than our habit of using "you" as both a singular and a plural.

In many scriptures I have changed the King James (English) spelling to American spelling (labour=labor, for example. I understand those in England still spell it with a u). Also, in some scriptures I have changed the "-eth" to a simple "s." Spelling standards weren't set in English until the mid 1800's, well after the translating of the KJV. So I see no problem with making these simple changes that don't affect the meaning of the scripture but make it easier for our modern mouths and ears to deal with.

Exodus 28- The Priesthood

1 Take Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, so that he may minister to Me in the priest's office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's sons.

Aaron and his sons are to be the Priesthood of Israel.

2 And you will make holy garments for Aaron your brother for glory and for beauty.

"Make sacred garments for your brother Aaron to give him dignity and honor." -NIV

3 Speak to all the skilled craftsmen whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron's garments to dedicate him to minister to Me in the priest's office.

God gave certain people special talents to be used to make these special clothes for Aaron and his sons.

4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and tunic (full apron), a robe, an embroidered coat, a turban, and a belt. They shall make holy garments for your brother Aaron, and his sons, that he may minister to Me in the priest's office.

5 And they shall use fine linen with gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads.

The Ephod

Image result for priests garments exodus 6 And they shall make the tunic of fine twined linen with beautiful embroidery using gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads.

7 It will be joined together at the shoulders with two shoulder pieces fastened at the two edges. 

8 And the belt of the tunic, which is on it, will be of the same type of work, made from fine twined linen with gold, blue, purple, and scarlet embroidery work. 

Image result for onyx stones
9 And you will take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the children of Israel,

Onyx stones are a type of layered or striped rock.

10 Six of their names on one stone, and the other six names of the rest of the tribes on the other stone, according to their birth order.

11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a signet ring, you will engrave the two stones with the names of the children of Israel. You will put them in settings of gold filigree. 

These weren't just scratched in. They were engraved the way a fine jeweler would engrave an expensive piece of jewelry. Then they were to be attached to the shoulders of the ephod (sleeveless tunic, full apron) by settings of gold filigree.

12 And you will put the two stones on the shoulders of the tunic for memorial stones to the children of Israel. Aaron shall carry their names before the I AM on his two shoulders for a memorial.

This was to show who Aaron was representing to God.

13 And you will make gold filigree settings,

14 with two chains of pure gold at the ends, made like rope, fastened to the settings of gold filigree.

The Breast-piece

Image result for priests garments exodus 15 And you will make the Breastplate of Judgment with skilled work, just like the work of the tunic. Use gold, blue, purple, and scarlet threads in fine twined linen. 

16 Make it nine inches square, of double layers.

17 And you make settings of stones in four rows. The first row will be a ruby, a topaz, and an emerald.

18 And the second row will be a turquoise, sapphire, and diamond.

19 And the third row a jacinth, agate, and amethyst.

20 And the fourth row a beryl, onyx, and jasper. They will be set in gold settings. 

21 And the stones will have the names of the twelve children of Israel, engraved just like a fine jewel, the names of the twelve tribes. 

22 You will make on the breastplate chains on its ends of ropes of pure gold.

23 And make on the ends of it two rings of gold.

24 Put the two ropes of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.

25 And the other two ends of the ropes fasten to the two settings of gold filigree on the shoulder pieces of the tunic..

26 You will make two rings of gold to put in the other ends of the breastplate's border, on the sides next to the tunic.

27 Put two more rings of gold on the sides of the tunic, towards the front, just above the belt. 

28 They will fasten the breastplate by its rings to the rings of the tunic with a cord of blue, so it will stay above the belt of the tunic, and won't swing away from it. 

29 Aaron will always carry the names of the children of Israel in the Breastplate of Judgment on his heart, when he goes in unto the holy place, for a continual reminder before the I AM.

30 And you will put the Urim and the Thummim in the Breastplate of Judgment , and they shall be on Aaron's heart, when he goes in before the I AM, and he will always carry the judgment of the children of Israel on his heart before the I AM.

We don't know what "urim and thummim" actually were. Maybe flat rocks, one white and one black? or pieces of wood or bone that were distinctive from each other?

We do know they were used to decide simple questions; yes or no, guilty or innocent.

Evidently there was a pouch on the breastplate (between the two layers where Moses was told to double it?) to keep these two objects and when the priest was asked a question he would pull out one of them for an answer.

The Robe

31 You will make the robe of the tunic all of blue.

32 And there will be a hole in the top of it with a woven collar so it won't tear. 

33 And on the hem make ornaments shaped like pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet, around the hem, with bells of gold between them round.

34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, attached to the hem of the robe all around.

Alternating bells and cloth balls would have produced a soft, gentle sound.

35 And the robe will be on Aaron when he ministers, and his sound will be heard when he goes in to the Holy place before the I AM, and when he comes out, so that he doesn't die.

The Tabernacle addressed all the senses: gold and fine weaving to please the eyes, bells and pomegranates to please the ears, and we will read later, incense to please the smell. 

The Turban

36 Make a plate of pure gold, and engrave on it, like the engravings of a fine jewel, HOLINESS TO THE I AM.

37 Attach it by a blue cord to the front of the turban. 

38 It will be on Aaron's forehead so that he carries the sins of the holy things, which the children of Israel will dedicate in all their holy gifts. It will always be on his forehead, that the gifts may be accepted by the I AM. 

The Coat

39 You will embroider the coat of fine linen, and the turban will be made of fine linen, and belt of needlework.

40 For Aaron's sons you will make coats and belts and caps for glory and for beauty. 

41 You will put them on your brother Aaron and his sons, and anoint them, and consecrate them, and sanctify them, so they can minister to Me in the priest's office.

42 And you will make them linen underwear to cover their skin from the waist to the thighs.

43 Aaron and his sons will wear them so when they come into the Tabernacle of the Congregation, or when they come near the Altar to minister in the holy place, so they carry no sin and die. This will be a law forever to him and his children after him.